Technology Exploration

Clustering Modes in Knights Landing Processors

May 11, 2016

This publication is part of a developer guide focusing on the new features in 2nd generation Intel® Xeon Phi™ processors code-named Knights Landing (KNL). In this document we discuss the clustering modes of the on-die mesh interconnect. We start a discussion on what types of applications benefit from the clustering modes and why clustering modes help these applications. After that we cover the specifics of the available cluster modes: all-to-all, quadrant, hemisphere, SNC-4 and SNC-2. Finally, we discuss how to make the application NUMA-aware for use in SNC modes. In this context, we give recipes for nested OpenMP and hybrid MPI+OpenMP approaches combined with first-touch allocation policy, numactl tool and memkind library.  Colfax_KNL_Clustering_Modes_Guide.pdf (376 KB) — this file is available only to registered users. Register or Log In. See also: colfaxresearch.com/get-ready-for-intel-knights-landing-3-papers/ 1. Cache Organization in KNL 2nd generation Intel® Xeon Phi™processors code-named Knights Landing (KNL) are specialized [...]

MCDRAM as High-Bandwidth Memory (HBM) in Knights Landing Processors: Developer’s Guide

May 11, 2016

This publication is part of a developer guide focusing on the new features in 2nd generation Intel® Xeon Phi™ processors code-named Knights Landing (KNL). In this document we discuss the on-package high-bandwidth memory (HBM) based on the multi-channel dynamic random access memory (MCDRAM) technology: Three configuration modes of HBM: Flat mode, Cache mode and Hybrid mode Utilization of the HBM as addressable memory using two methods: by setting affinity policy with the numactl tool and through the usage of special allocators in the memkind library Guidelines for determining the optimal usage model for applications running on bootable Knights Landing.  Colfax_KNL_MCDRAM_Guide.pdf (255 KB) — this file is available only to registered users. Register or Log In. See also: colfaxresearch.com/get-ready-for-intel-knights-landing-3-papers/ 1. MCDRAM in KNL Memory bandwidth in computing systems is one of the common bottlenecks for performance in computational application. Bandwidth-limited applications are characterized by algorithms that have few floating point [...]

Guide to Automatic Vectorization with Intel AVX-512 Instructions in Knights Landing Processors

May 11, 2016

This publication is part of a developer guide focusing on the new features in 2nd generation Intel® Xeon Phi™processors code-named Knights Landing (KNL). In this document, we focus on the new vector instruction set introduced in Knights Landing processors, Intel® Advanced Vector Extensions 512 (Intel® AVX-512). The discussion includes: Introduction to vector instructions in general, The structure and specifics of AVX-512, and Practical usage tips: checking if a processor has support for various features, compilation process and compiler arguments, and pros and cons of explicit and automatic vectorization using the Intel® C++ Compiler and the GNU Compiler Collection.  Colfax_KNL_AVX512_Guide.pdf (195 KB) — this file is available only to registered users. Register or Log In. See also: colfaxresearch.com/get-ready-for-intel-knights-landing-3-papers/ 1. Vector Instructions Intel® Xeon Phi™products are highly parallel processors with the Intel® Many Integrated Core (MIC) architecture. Parallelism is present in these [...]

Software Developer’s Introduction to the HGST Ultrastar Archive Ha10 SMR Drives

July 31, 2015

In this paper we will discuss the new HGST Shingled Magnetic Recording (SMR) drives, Ultrastar Archive Ha10, which offers storage capacities of 10 TB and beyond. With their high-density storage capacities, these drives are well suited for large “active archive” applications. In an active archive application, the data is frequently read but seldom modified. The SMR drives are host managed, meaning that the developer must manage the data storage on the drives. In this publication we introduce an open source library, libzbc, which was developed by the HGST team to assist developers who use SMR drives. The discussions cover topics from the very basics like opening a device, to more advanced topics like data padding. The goal of this paper is to give readers the necessary knowledge and tools to develop applications with libzbc. We will present an example, and then report several benchmarks of I/O operations on the HGST SMR drives, and discuss the SMR drive’s effectiveness as an active archive solution. Complete paper:  HGST_Introduction_to_libzbc.pdf (361 KB) — this [...]

Performance to Power and Performance to Cost Ratios with Intel Xeon Phi Coprocessors (and why 1x Acceleration May Be Enough)

January 27, 2015

The paper studies two performance metrics of systems enabled with Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors: the ratio of performance to consumed electrical power and the ratio of performance to purchasing system cost, both under the assumption of linear parallel scalability of the application. Performance to power values are measured for three workloads: a compute-bound workload (DGEMM), a memory bandwidth-bound workload (STREAM), and a latency-limited workload (small matrix LU decomposition). Performance to cost ratios are computed, using system configurations and prices available at Colfax International, as functions of the acceleration factor and of the number of coprocessors per system. That study considers hypothetical applications with acceleration factor from 0.35x to 2x. In all studies, systems with Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors yield better metrics than systems with only Intel Xeon processors. That applies even with acceleration factor of 1x, as long as the application can be distributed between the CPU and the coprocessor. Complete paper:  Colfax_1x.pdf (321 KB) — this file is [...]

Configuration and Benchmarks of Peer-to-Peer Communication over Gigabit Ethernet and InfiniBand in a Cluster with Intel Xeon Phi Coprocessors

March 11, 2014

Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors allow symmetric heterogeneous clustering models, in which MPI processes are run fully on coprocessors, as opposed to offload-based clustering. These symmetric models are attractive, because they allow effortless porting of CPU-based applications to clusters with manycore computing accelerators. However, with the default software configuration and without specialized networking hardware, peer-to-peer communication between coprocessors in a cluster is quenched by orders of magnitude compared to the capabilities of Gigabit Ethernet networking hardware. This situation is remedied by InfiniBand interconnects and the software supporting them. In this paper we demonstrate the procedures for configuring a cluster with Intel Xeon Phi coprocessors connected with Gigabit Ethernet as well as InfiniBand interconnects. We measure and discuss the latencies and bandwidths of MPI messages with and without the advanced configuration with InfiniBand support. The paper contains a discussion of MPI application tuning in an InfiniBand-enabled cluster with Intel Xeon Phi [...]

Squeezing More Instructions per Cycle out of the Intel Sandy Bridge CPU Pipeline

July 31, 2012

Parallelism in modern CPU architectures is supported at hardware level by multiple cores, vector registers, and pipelines. While the utilization of the former two is a shared responsibility of the programmer and the compiler, pipelining is handled completely by the processor. It is, however, useful for the developer to know what types of workloads optimize pipeline utilization. This paper shows one example where a specific workload improves the number of instructions executed per clock cycle, boosting arithmetic performance. This workload is comprised of two independent data processing tasks, one performing the AVX addition instruction and the other — the AVX multiplication instruction. Even though these tasks are executed sequentially on one core, alternating additions and multiplications in the code allows the CPU to complete the task 40% faster than when a sequence of additions is followed by a sequence of multiplications. Such workloads are common in linear algebraic applications. Examples in the paper illustrate how improved performance can be achieved in portable C code [...]

Arithmetics on Intel’s Sandy Bridge and Westmere CPUs: not all FLOPs are created equal

April 30, 2012

This paper presents a new arithmetic efficiency benchmark and uses it to compare the Intel Sandy Bridge E5-2680 CPU to the Intel Westmere X5690 CPU performance. The efficiency is measured for single and double precision floating point operations: addition, multiplication, division, square root and the exponential function, and for 32- and 64-bit integer operations: addition, multiplication and division. The SSE2 and AVX instruction sets, as well as scalar operations, in single-threaded and multi-threaded modes are covered. This benchmark eliminates the effects of memory bandwidth and latency by fitting the calculation in the L1 cache. The bandwidth of the L1 cache and main memory (RAM) are estimated for reference, and the LINPACK benchmark result is reported. Results show that the E5-2680 CPU performs floating point addition and multiplication dramatically faster (up to 2.6x) than the X5690 model. However, the floating point division and square root are the new model’s weak spots. AVX floating point operations addition and multiplication are up to 2.0x faster than the SSE2; [...]